Glenoid labrum function

Glenoid Labrum ShoulderDo

  1. The glenoid labrum is similar to the meniscus of the knee. It is a fibro-cartilaginous rubbery structure which encircles the glenoid cavity deepening the socket providing static stability to the glenohumeral joint. It acts and looks almost like a washer, sealing the two sides of the joint together
  2. In anatomy and physiology, the term 'labrum' is used to refer to an edge or a brim. The labrum surrounding the shoulder socket is called the 'the glenoid labrum'. It coats the surface of the socket area with a soft cartilage, enabling the shoulder to move more freely and painlessly
  3. The glenoid labrum (glenoid ligament) is a fibrocartilaginous structure (not a fibrocartilage as previously thought) rim attached around the margin of the glenoid cavity in the shoulder blade. The shoulder joint is considered a ball and socket joint
  4. The glenoid labrum is a fibrous ring of tissue which attaches to the rim of the glenoid which is the shallow depression of the scapula or shoulder blade where the ball of the humerus sits. The glenoid labrum increases the depth of the shoulder cavity making the shoulder joint more stable
  5. The glenoid labrum, also called the glenoidal labrum, describes a ring of flexible cartilage that lines the cavity of the shoulder joint. Its purpose is to increase the depth of the shoulder cavity and add overall stability to the shoulder joint
  6. glenoid labral lesions typicallycomplain of shoulder instabilityand pain, especially in the provocative position of humeral abduction and external rotation.5 Superior labral tears, often referred to as superior labrum from anterior to posterior lesions, involve the detachment of the superior labrum from the underlying glenoid
  7. The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous rim attached around the margin of the glenoid cavity that serves to deepen the cavity. (The glenoid fossa of the scapula is relatively shallow, contacting at most only a third of the head of the humerus)

The glenoid-labrum (a fibrous cartilage-like material) and joint fluid work together to create a suction-cup holding effect. This effect is on the humerus head. This effect is on the humerus head. The glenoid-labrum essentially deepens the sockets by acting like a skirting around the shallower glenoid cavity glenoid labrum. fibrocartilaginous lip around glenoid rim. glenoid labrum function. deepens socket. adds stability. enlarges contact area. deepens socket by__%. 50%. enlarges socket by__% The glenoid labrum is the fibrocartilage of the shoulder joint, anchoring the joint capsule and shoulder ligaments. Morphology varies regionally, especially in the superior and anterior region; these variants can sometimes be confused with pathological aspects The role of the labrum The exact functional role of the labrum is still undefined. It has been theorised to function as a chock-block, increasing the glenoid depth and resisting translation (Matsen, III et al. 1991; Lippitt and Matsen 1993)

Analyzing the Shoulder: Function & Anatomy of the Labrum

glenoid insertion site was performed, with the labrum geometryand mechanical properties incorporated into the insertion site re-gion without compromising the capsule The labrum has two functions. The first is to deepen the socket so that the ball stays in place. Picture the shoulder joint as a beach ball on a dinner plate. The ball of the humerus (the beach ball) is much larger than the flat socket (the dinner plate)

The function of the glenohumeral ligaments is dependent on the position of the humerus with respect to the glenoid Functions Of The Glenoid Labrum. Which of the following is not a function of theGlenoid Labrum? Increases the compression and contact forces at the shoulder by generating forces drawing the humeral head into the glenoid fossa. Increase the width and depth of the articulating space Account for 20% of the passive stability in compressive motions. The impact of glenoid labrum thickness and modulus on labrum and glenohumeral capsule function. Drury NJ (1), Ellis BJ, Weiss JA, McMahon PJ, Debski RE. The glenoid labrum is an integral component of the glenohumeral capsule's insertion into the glenoid, and changes in labrum geometry and mechanical properties may lead to the development of. Glenoid labrum: A ring of fibrocartilage that runs around the cavity of the scapula (wingbone) in which the head of the humerus (the bone in the upper arm) fits. The labrum deepens this cavity (the glenoid cavity) and effectively increases the surface of the shoulder joint The glenoid is also tilted from superomedial to inferolateral by an average of 15 degrees. The depth of the fossa is enhanced by the glenoid labrum, which can contribute up to 50% of the fossa's depth. View chapter Purchase book Surgical Treatment of Scapular Fracture

Glenoid labrum - Wikipedi

A SLAP lesion (superior labrum, anterior [front] to posterior [back]) is a tear of the rim above the middle of the socket that may also involve the biceps tendon. Our Approach to Glenoid Labrum Tear. UCSF is committed to helping patients with glenoid labrum tears recover function and build strength Function/Biomechanics The glenoid labrum acts as a passive stabilizer to the glenohumeral articulation by adding depth to the shallow glenoid fossa. It also serves as a primary attachment site for the GHLs, joint capsule, and long head of the biceps tendon Introduction. The glenoid labrum is essential for the structure and therefore the function of the glenohumeral joint. This joint has the greatest range of motion of any articulation in the body—the cost of which is vulnerability to injury in the form of instability Download Shoulder Anatomy Superior Labrum - Restoring the normal anatomy of the shoulder is the most effective way of preventing recurrent instability and improving function in the young and athletic population Restoring the anatomy primarily means repairing the torn labrum back to the rim of the glenoid This is called a Bankart repair This can. The labrum is a fibrocartilagenous ring surrounding the glenoid, or socket. The function of the labrum is similar to the rim of a golf tee. It serves to deepen the socket to help stabilize the ball within the socket. Damage to the labrum may result in instability (looseness) or pain

Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Shoulder - TeachMe Orthopedics

Glenoid Labrum. Fibrocartilage of the shoulder joint. Runs along the outer rim of the glenoid. Provides up to 10% of glenohumeral stability. Other structures. Continguous with the insertion of the long head of the Biceps Brachii onto the supraglenoid tubercle. Glenohumeral Ligaments As stated above, injuries and repetitive strain put on the shoulder leads to Glenoid Labrum Tear. Some of the injuries than can cause Glenoid Labrum Tear are fall on outstretched arms, a direct blow to the shoulder as a result of a tackle while playing football or hockey, a direct blow or trauma to the shoulder, lifting heavy weights with the hands up overhead on a repetitive basis such as. Purpose: The nature and the distribution of fibrocartilage at the human glenoid labrum are unclear, and a better understanding may help to restore its function in open and arthroscopic Bankart repair Complete detachment of the glenoid labrum from the superior pole of the glenoid, which is associated with a destabilization of the origin of the long biceps tendon, leads to altered function in the shoulder joint. This is especially noticeable when the shoulder is used in overhead activities. Two op Greyscale grading of the a) tensile and b) compressive elastic modulus of the glenoid labrum (Smith et al. 2008; Smith et al. 2009). Clinical Lesions. Although there are many hypotheses on the function of the labrum, there is agreement that it aids in stability of the shoulder. The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the body, but is also the.

The Impact of Glenoid Labrum Thickness and Modulus on Labrum and Glenohumeral Capsule Function The glenoid labrum is an integral component of the glenohumeral capsule's insertion into the glenoid, and changes in labrum geometry and mechanical properties may lead to the development of glenohumeral joint pathology Passive stability to the joint is provided by the labrum , capsule, and glenohumeral ligaments in normal shoulder function [11, 40]. The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous structure that encircles the edge of the glenoid fossa and acts to simultaneously protect the outer edges of the glenoid while also deepening the pocket to protect. 2. Normal labrum anatomy and biomechanics2.1. Anatomy. The glenoid labrum is the fibrocartilage of the shoulder joint. It comprises 3 sides and 1 edge: the superficial side is free and responsive to the humeral head; the articular side adheres, to a greater or lesser degree according to area, to the edge of the glenoid cavity; and the peripheral side is in continuity with the joint capsule.

GLENOID LABRUM: ANATOMY AND FUNCTION The glenoid labrum is a ring of fibrocartilaginous tissue that runs along the rim of the glenoid fossa. Inferiorly, the labrum is continuous with the articular cartilage of the glenoid, but superiorly may adopt a variety of morphologies, is either firm,. Glenoid labrum and SLAP tears are soft tissue injuries that occur in the shoulder. To be more specific, a SLAP (Superior Labrum Anterior to Posterior) tear is a type of labral tear that occurs at the top of the labrum where part of the biceps originates. The main function of the labrum is to help stabilize the ball within the socket, and. Glenoid cavity: characteristics, function, pathologies, disorders On the other hand, the glenoid cavity has a ring of fibrocartilaginous tissue called the labrum or glenoid rim. The labrum, together with the joint capsule and the glenohumeral ligaments, is called the capsulolabral complex.. Anterior labral tears were defined as detachment of the glenoid labrum from the glenoid rim anywhere between 3 and 5 o'clock on a superimposed clockface. Patient assessment At presentation, each patient completed a questionnaire asking when the problem began, whether it was related to a specific injury, and whether it was work related The glenoid labrum is a layer of cartilage within the socket of your shoulder joint. It plays an important role in stabilizing your shoulder during pushing movements, overhead reaching and sports that involve throwing. Physical therapy and exercise also plays an important role in recovering full function of your shoulder. This article.

Glenoid Labrum Tear - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and

  1. A glenoid labral tear is a rip in the cartilage that deepens the shallow socket of the shoulder and helps hold the ball of the shoulder joint (humeral head) in place. They are typically caused by a traumatic shoulder injuries like a dislocation or separation, or by repetitive overhead movement. There a many types of glenoid labrum tears and the.
  2. A SLAP lesion (superior labrum, anterior [front] to posterior [back]) is a tear of the rim above the middle of the socket that may also involve the biceps tendon. A tear of the rim below the middle of the glenoid socket that also involves the inferior glenohumeral ligament is called a Bankart lesion
  3. Glenoid labrum . function . chock block to subluxation; composition . composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue; blood supply . from suprascapular, circumflex scapular, posterior humeral circumflex arteries; labrum receives blood from capsule and periosteal vessels and not from underlying bone; anterior-superior labrum has poorest blood supply.
  4. or) that surround the glenohumeral joint
  5. This educational video explains glenoid labrum tears of the shoulder, including causes, symptoms and treatment options. It is highly recommended the patient.
  6. Background:Although the glenoid labrum has an important role in shoulder stability, little is known about its composition, vascularity and innervation. The aims of this study were therefore to eval..
  7. Glenohumeral Joint Anatomy, Stabilizer, and Biomechanics. scapular plane is 30 degrees anterior to coronal plane. abduction requires external rotation to clear the greater tuberosity from impinging on the acromion. the labrum attached to the glenoid rim and a flat/broad middle glenohumeral ligament is the most common normal variation

What is the Glenoid Labrum? (with pictures

The shoulder labrum is a thin layer of cartilage that lies between the humerus (bone of the upper arm) and the glenoid fossa, the small groove which the humerus fits into. It functions as a shock absorber and a part of the shoulder joint's connective structure. Therefore, it cushions the joint when the humerus collides with the glenoid A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF THE SUPERIOR GLENOID LABRUM by Eunjoo Hwang Co-chairs: Mark L. Palmer and John A. Faulkner Despite numerous studies on the function and pathologies of the shoulder joint's superior glenoid labrum, controversy still exists concerning the mechanism of injury to the superior labra

The glenoid labrum: does labral lesion location matter

What Is the Hip Labrum? Made of tough cartilage, the labrum rings the hip's socket, or acetabulum. The labrum is important to overall hip health and function. Specifically, the labrum: Facilitates the hip's range of motion, allowing the thigh to rotate in every direction, including forward, backward, inward, and externally What is the function of the glenoid labrum? Deepens the fossa, helps stability, and cushions joint. What type of joint is the glenohumeral (GH) joint? Ball and Socket joint (GH) joint is: Glenohumeral joint. Bones that make up the glenohumeral joint: Scapula, clavicle, and humerus The labrum is a fibrocartilaginous ring attached to the outer rim of the glenoid that increases the area of contact between the humeral head and glenoid and provides added depth to the joint. Given the profound mobility of the shoulder and the shallowness of the bony glenoid, the increased surface area and depth provided by the labrum serves an.

A labral quadrant was classified as torn if the labral tissue was detached from the glenoid (aided by dynamic imaging to distract a torn labrum from the glenoid) or not visible on sonography. The attachment of the long head of the biceps tendon to the superior labrum was not assessed in this study The labrum is a disk of cartilage on the glenoid, or socket side of the shoulder joint. The labrum helps stabilize the joint and acts as a bumper to limit excessive motion of the humerus, the ball side of the shoulder joint. More importantly, it holds the humerus securely to the glenoid, almost as if suction were involved The glenoid labrum, a fibrocartilaginous ring, attaches to the outer room of the glenoid fossa and provides additional depth and stability. Labrum. The glenoid labrum is a ring composed of mostly dense fibrous tissue. The average depth of the glenoid fossa is 2.5 mm, however, the labrum helps to increase this depth Superior Glenoid Labrum Lesions: (SLAP) - See: proximal biceps tendonopathy. - Discussion: - refers to a detachment lesion of the superior aspect of glenoid labrum, which serves as the insertion of long head of biceps; - relatively common injury in throwing atheletes, but may most commonly occur in patients who have fallen or who have received. labrum; namely, a posterior-dominant biceps attachment would cause posterior or combined anterior and posterior labral avul-sions with a tensile load. Further modifications were added by Nord and Ryu: Type VIII, extension along the posterior glenoid labrum as far as 6 o'clock; Type IX, pan-labral injury; and Typ

Disorders of the Glenoid Labrum OrthoPaedi

  1. The shoulder joint is a ball and socket joint between the scapula and the humerus.However the socket of the glenoid cavity of the scapula is itself quite shallow and is made deeper by the addition of the glenoid labrum.The glenoid labrum is a ring of cartilaginous fibre attached to the circumference of the cavity. This ring is continuous with the tendon of the biceps brachii above
  2. The glenoid labrum increases the width and depth of the glenoid. Instability is increased with the size of the glenoid defect. The glenohumeral ligaments: The superior glenohumeral ligament functions primarily to resist inferior translation and external rotation of the humeral head in the adducted arm
  3. The glenoid fossa is a very shallow depression on the scapula. In order to increase stability at the glenohumeral joint the fossa is surrounded by a rim of cartilage called the glenoid labrum (Figure 1). The primary function of the labrum is too deepen the socket for the glenohumeral joint and therefore provide greater stability
  4. The glenoid is the cup of the shoulder joint, and the labrum is a rim a cartilage at the edge of the glenoid. The labrum functions as a seal to the shoulder joint, and also helps with stability of the shoulder. The labrum itself serves to deepen the glenoid, to provide more surface for the humeral head (ball) to articulate with..
  5. Anatomy and Function. Histologically, the glenoid labrum has been characterized as purely fibrous or as primarily fibrocartilaginous tissue. Elastin fibers are sparsely intertwined within the matrix. A fibrocartilaginous zone borders the glenoid hyaline cartilage and the labrum; this serves as the attachment of the labrum to the glenoid

Tears in the glenoid labrum can lead to shoulder dislocation because the glenoid cavity is very shallow without the glenoid labrum to; Question: 70 of 40 Part A The glenoid labrum can become tor from overuse or direct injury to the shoulder joint. Considering the function of the glenoid labrum describe some of the consequences of a large tear. Fifteen patients with shoulder instability and nine asymptomatic volunteers were studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The shoulder joint was visualized by means of arthroscopy or surgery in all patients. Ten patients had abnormalities of the glenoid labrum The role of the long head of the biceps muscle and superior glenoid labrum in anterior stability of the shoulder. Urayama, M Itoi, E Hatakeyama, Y Pradhan, RL Sato, K. Function of the 3 portions of the inferior glenohumeral ligament: A cadaveric study The long head of the biceps tendon, which attaches superiorly on the glenoid labrum, is also a stabilizer but may not be truly dynamic.5, 7, 8 The primary function of the rotator cuff is to.

The Shoulder Joint: How Does It Work and What Holds it Up

i) Glenoid fossa: very shallow - Is surrounded by the glenoid labrum. - Glenod labrum functions to facilitate mobility an provide attachment for the joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles. ii) Humeral head: - Only 25-30% contact between articular surfaces - Primary function is mobilit Extra stability to the glenohumeral joint is provided by the glenoid labrum, a ring of fibrous cartilage that surrounds the glenoid cavity. The glenoid labrum increases the depth and surface area of the glenoid cavity to provide a more secure fit for the half-spherical head of the humerus

glenoid labrum Flashcards Quizle

Glenoid labrum pathology - ScienceDirec

Describing glenoid cavity with labrum its dimensions and depth, using digital caliber, then remove the labrum, is measured again the major axis of the articular cavity, depth, and the index with glenohumeral labrum and without the same.Results:: Glenoid cavity: 1.With labrum front-back max 32.78, min 26.09 . Upper- lower max 44.06 min 33.69 the labrum acts like a gasket of sorts that sits around the glenoid fossa which is the socket that the ball of the humerus sits in. the glenoid labrum adds extra stability to the joint and deepens. function. The glenoid labrum enlarges the bony joint surface of the glenoid by about a third and, thanks to its wedge-shaped structure, creates an additional deepening of the glenoid.As a result, it ensures better coverage of the humerus head and the consistency of the joint partners involved at the edge of the joint increases, resulting in more favorable stress distribution, better centering. OF THE SUPERIOR GLENOID LABRUM by Eunjoo Hwang A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Kinesiology and Biomedical Engineering) in the University of Michigan 2014 Doctoral Committee: Assistant Professor Mark L. Palmer, Co-Chair Professor Emeritus John A. Faulkner, Co-Chai The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous rim of tissue that is triangular in cross-section and acts to increase the depth of the glenoid vault ( Figure 2 ). It serves as a passive stabilizer of the joint while providing an insertion for the anterior band of the IGHL and long head of the biceps ( 22 )

MRI Showed a Labrum Tear in the Shoulder. The MRI of one of his shoulder showed a: Positive for a tear of the posterior labrum. Paralabral cyst along the posterior margin of the glenoid. Thickening of the capsular structures (compatible to capsulitis). As with many accidents involving a shoulder labrum tear, my client had other injuries as well The labrum (everyone is curious to learn about the labrum for some reason) is a fibrocartilage ring that expands the socket and provides more inherent stability (not a lot, but more than the glenoid would provide by itself). Glenoid Labrum. The humeral head and the glenoid are covered with articular cartilage to make things smooth The glenoid labrum, a fibrocartilagi-nous ring, attaches to the rim of the gle-noid fossa, thereby deepening the shoulder socket and improving shoul-der stability. Removal of the labrum has been shown to reduce shoulder joint stability by 20% in cadaveric shoulders (8). A fibrous, hammocklike capsule and a series of ligaments secure the humeral. Descriptions of the constitution of the glenoid labrum are somewhat diverse. It has been described as a fibrous ring or band effectively increasing the depth of the glenoid fossa. 1 -3 Others, however, describe it as a cartilaginous structure. 4 -9 One study 10 stated that in week 10 of gestation, the glenoid labrum is fibrocellular rather than fibrocartilaginous with collagen fibres.

Some common pathology includes labral tears, instability, impingement, bursitis, rotator cuff tears and arthritis. Labral Tears/ Instability. The labrum is a fibrocartilage structure that surrounds the socket of both joints. The socket of the shoulder is called the glenoid and that of the hip is referred to as the acetabulum The fragility of the shoulder is reinforced by a series of ligaments, and a rim of tissue that surrounds the cavity called the glenoid labrum. If excessive force is applied to the arm, the shoulder may become dislocated, that is, the head of the humerus may be forced out of the cavity and the supporting ligaments of the shoulder may be.

The Glenoid Labrum ShoulderDo

  1. This Glenoid-labral complex functions further like the suction cup you attach to your glass window, by maintaining a negative pressure within the shoulder joint to keep their humeral ball located. Due to the flatness of the glenoid component, this makes the shoulder the most movable joint of the entire body
  2. It functions to reduces frictional damage to the subscapularis muscle during movement of the glenohumeral joint, particularly during internal rotation. Static stabilizing structures include the osseous articular anatomy and joint congruity, the glenoid labrum, the glenohumeral ligaments, joint capsule, and negative intraarticular pressure
  3. The glenoid labrum makes the glenoid fossa deeper. The glenohumeral joint is the most mobile joint in the body. The glenohumeral joint is surrounded by a large, loose bag called a capsule. The capsule has to be large and loose to allow for the many movements of this joint. Ligaments reinforce the capsule and connect the humeral head to.
  4. Untreated labral tears are a significant threat to the health and function of your shoulder. If your shoulder is moving in ways it shouldn't, see a physical therapist soon — he'll help you put.
  5. iaturized television cameras to see inside a joint

The glenoid labrum is a rim of soft tissue that surrounds the shoulder socket—holding the head of the humerus in place and stabilizing the shoulder. An accident or injury may cause a partial or sometimes complete labrum tear and subsequent shoulder subluxations or dislocations The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous ring of tissue that forms a peripheral lining of the bony glenoid socket of the shoulder. It functions to increases the overall surface area of the shallow glenoid, deepen the shoulder socket, and stabilize the humeral head, making it more difficult to dislocate the humeral head The glenoid labrum is a fibrous rim that serves to deepen the glenoid fossa and allow attachment of the glenohumeral ligaments and the biceps tendon to the glenoid. Interconnection and anatomy. Anatomically it is the interconnection of the periosteum of the glenoid the glenoid bone the glenoid articular cartilage the synovium and the capsule Anatomy of the Glenoid Labrum and Biceps Tendon Knowledge of the normal anatomy and physiology of the glenoid labrum is impor-tant for understanding the pathogenesis of labral tears. The labrum is a ring of fibro-cartilaginous tissue that surrounds the gle-noid rim. It functions to increase the depth of the glenoid cavity and provides stabilit

Kinesiology - The Shoulder Joint at Lynchburg College

The triceps brachii muscle has three heads, each of which have their own origin: The long head arises from the infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, which is a rough area at the inferior margin of the glenoid fossa.Its attachment extends slightly above to the adjacent glenoid labrum and blends with the glenohumeral capsule of the shoulder joint, contributing to its stability Glenoid Labrum Tear Introduction The labrum is a lip like piece of cartilage that deepens the socket (Glenoid) of the shoulder joint. It functions to help stabilize the shoulder. The labrum is divided into superior (top), inferior (bottom), anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts. The anterior-inferior portion of the labrum can be torn when. Labrum: In medicine, a ring of fibrocartilage (fibrous cartilage) around the edge of the articular (joint) surface of a bone. The term labrum is used in anatomy to designate a lip, edge, or brim. Plural: labra. The glenoid labrum is a ring of fibrocartilage that runs around the cavity of the scapula (wingbone) in which the head of the humerus (the bone in the upper arm) fits

The labrum is a fibrocartilagenous ring surrounding the glenoid, or socket. The function of the labrum is similar to the rim of a golf tee. It serves to deepen the socket to help stabilize the ball within the socket. Damage to the labrum may result in instability (looseness) or pain. The shoulder joint proper is composed of the humeral head. Tears of the glenoid labrum were observed in 73 baseball pitchers and other throwing athletes who underwent arthroscopic examination of the dominant shoulder. Most of the tears were located over the anterosuperior portion of the glenoid labrum near the origin of the tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle into the glenoid Labral Tears. The labrum is a ring of elastic cartilage around the edge of the glenoid (shoulder socket). It acts as a container for the humeral head and essentially deepens the socket, wile creating a suction seal of the joint to increasestability. Labral tears may be caused by falls or collisions, often in sports Anatomies similar to or like Glenoid labrum. Fibrocartilaginous structure (not a fibrocartilage as previously thought) rim attached around the margin of the glenoid cavity in the shoulder blade. and to function as a shock absorber for the spine Joints of the Shoulder Region Glenohumeral (shoulder) joint Classification - Synovial, multiaxial, ball and socket Articular surfaces i) Glenoid fossa - very shallow Glenoid labrum - Fibrous structure around fossa Functions to: - Facilitate mobility - Increase glenoid concavity - Provide attachment for joint capsule, ligaments, muscles ii) Humeral head - ½ sphere - 3x the size of the.

Shoulder Labrum Tear Johns Hopkins Medicin

Anatomy Block III- Shoulder and Hip Joints FlashcardsUpper Limb: Cards 6-1 to 6-66 | Basicmedical Key

Anatomy and Function of the Glenohumeral Ligaments in

  1. The labrum serves to deepen the glenoid fossa and helps maintain glenohumeral alignment. 4. Variations in osseous anatomy at the glenoid can significantly affect shoulder stability. Glenoid hypoplasia or posterior glenoid rim deficiency refer to a spectrum of bony abnormalities involving the posteroinferior glenoid (Figure 3a)
  2. SLAP (Superior Labral tear from Anterior to Posterior) lesion: consists of injury to the glenoid labrum. Presents as dull pain, discomfort, decreased range of motion and strength, joint instability, and change in velocity in overhead athletes
  3. Before the use of shoulder arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and management of shoulder problems, glenoid labrum lesions were underappreciated. More specifically, superior labrum lesions about the insertion of the long biceps tendon were typically noted or managed using standard open surgical techniques
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