Paclitaxel success rates ovarian cancer

Common gynaecological carcinom final2

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer, responsible for about 14,000 deaths in the United States annually. Paclitaxel, an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug, is commonly used to treat ovarian, breast, lung, pancreatic and other cancers. Weekly paclitaxel therapy has been shown to prolong survival among patients with early-stage. The survival times of patients was not affected by age (P = 0.101) and pathological type of ovarian cancer (P = 0.94) significantly. However, it was significantly affected by the chemotherapy scheme. CONCLUSIONS: Combined chemotherapy using carboplatin plus paclitaxel should be considered as the preferred treatment scheme for the initial. We conducted a study to assess survival, response rate, and toxicity associated with paclitaxel treatment in patients with advanced ovarian cancer resistant to platinum therapy. Between September 1994 and November 1996, 38 patients were admitted for study and 37 were evaluable The response rate was 16% [two complete responders (CR), 20 partial responders (PR)], the median duration of response was 275 days and median survival was 244 days. Paclitaxel is active in relapsed and platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer. It is well tolerated and can be given in an out-patient setting

Katsumata N, Yasuda M, Isinoshi S, et al. Long-term results of dose-dense paclitaxel and carboplatin versus conventional paclitaxel and carboplatin for treatment of advanced ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer (JGOG 3016): a randomized, controlled open-label trial A computer-generated model of a Taxol molecule. Courtesy of NCI. 1991. Taxol® (NSC 125973) Paclitaxel, the most well-known natural-source cancer drug in the United States, is derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia) and is used in the treatment of breast, lung, and ovarian cancer, as well as Kaposi's sarcoma Despite increasing survival rates, advanced ovarian cancer is rarely cured and more than 50% of patients die within 5 years of their initial diagnosis (1, 5). Therefore, tolerability of treatment and quality of life remain important issues in future research Markman M, Liu PY, Moon J, et al. Impact on survival of 12 versus 3 monthly cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) administered to patients with advanced ovarian cancer who attained a complete response to primary platinum-paclitaxel: follow-up of a Southwest Oncology Group and Gynecologic Oncology Group phase 3 trial

UAB Clinical Trial Study Finds Ovarian Cancer Survival

  1. Most women with Stage 1 ovarian cancer have an excellent prognosis. Stage 1 patients with grade 1 tumors have a 5-year survival of over 90%, as do patients in stages 1A and 1B. Survival rates are often based on studies of large numbers of people, but they can't predict what will happen in any particular person's case
  2. Taxol (paclitaxel) for Ovarian Cancer: I had Taxol and Cisplatin for Stage 3 ovarian cancer. After 6 treatments, each 3 weeks apart, a second surgery to check for residual cancer cells, I was declared cancer free. The Taxol severely damaged my nerves in fingers and feet, but now after 16 yrs, I have no residual damage
  3. Thus, the incorporation of paclitaxel into first-line therapy has improved the ovarian cancer survival rate. This change was adopted by Korean gynecologic oncologists during 2000-2004, and may partially explain the improvement in survival between 1995 and 1999 and 2010-2014
  4. This study consisted of more than 14,000 ovarian cancer patients, approximately 9% of whom had ovarian carcinosarcoma, and the five-year disease specific survival rate was 28.2% for carcinosarcoma patients compared to 38.4% for high-grade papillary serous carcinoma patients (p < 0.001) [ 4 ]

Ovarian cancer accounts for about 3% of all cancer in females and is the 5th most common cause of death due to cancer because most ovarian tumors spread beyond ovary by the time of diagnosis The 8-year overall survival rates were 84.21% in the HIPEC-paclitaxel group and 25.00% in the control group (P = 0.0004). The time interval between initial treatment and HIPEC was statistically significant with respect to progression-free and overall survival in the HIPEC-paclitaxel group

consideration of paclitaxel as first-line therapy in ovarian cancer. Full results from the ICON3 trial and updated results from two others (GOG111, OV10) have become available since NICE issued its last guidance on the use of paclitaxel in the treatment of ovarian cancer. 4.1.2 . The GOG111 trial compared combination treatments of paclitaxel. Twenty-three patients (77%) were able to complete at least 4cycles of therapy per protocol, and the posterior probability that the treatment success rate is >60% is 0.77. Twenty-one patients (70%) were able to complete ≥6cycles of therapy

Several studies have used dose-dense paclitaxel in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer and are summarized in Table 1. Based on phase 1 studies, the recommended dose for weekly paclitaxel ranges between 80 and 90 mg/m 2, compared with 45 mg/m 2 per week with 3-weekly paclitaxel, and is given over 1-hour duration (Part 1) II. To evaluate the objective response rate (ORR) of ONC201 in combination with paclitaxel in patients with platinum refractory or resistant epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer. (Part 2) III 1. Introduction. Ovarian cancer remains the second leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers in the world [].Approximately 90% are epithelial in nature, and can be divided within five subtypes, high- and low-grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell and mucinous carcinoma [2,3]; high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma being the most common subtype (>70%) As a single agent in advanced ovarian cancer patients previously treated with a platinum agent, docetaxel at 100 mg/m2 every 3 weeks yields a 30% overall response rate and a 6-month duration of response. In vitro data demonstrate a lack of complete cross-resistance between docetaxel and paclitaxel

Comparisons of the survival time of patients with ovarian

Paclitaxel in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients

  1. 1. Gynecol Oncol. 2011 Dec;123(3):479-85. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2011.08.018. Epub 2011 Oct 5. Phase III trial of induction gemcitabine or paclitaxel plus carboplatin followed by paclitaxel consolidation in ovarian cancer
  2. Worldwide, ovarian cancer is the sixth most common cancer and the seventh most common cause of cancer deaths in women. 1 At the time of presentation, approximately 70% of women have advanced disease. 2 Despite standard treatment of initial debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy, most patients relapse after achieving a complete clinical response. 2,3 Disease that responds to first-line.
  3. Several prospective phase II trials of weekly paclitaxel in relapsed ovarian cancer have been reported . 24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33 Most of these tested weekly paclitaxel at a starting dose of.
  4. First-line ovarian cancer platinum doublet is paclitaxel-carboplatin. Superiority of weekly paclitaxel schedules has not been confirmed; however, a novel schedule with both drugs given weekly (days 1, 8, 15) followed by a 2-week break may be advantageous to some
  5. Weekly Carboplatin and Paclitaxel for Ovarian Cancer: doubled to median survival from surgery alone by achieving a 48.6-month median survival [14] and has become a glomerular filtration rates [18]. Although clinical trials have mostly moved beyond addressing chemotherapy questions
  6. HealthDay News — Dose-dense weekly paclitaxel does not improve progression-free survival in ovarian cancer, according to a study published in the February 25 issue of the New England Journal of.
  7. Ovarian Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates. Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of death from cancer in women and accounts for the highest mortality rate of all of the gynecological cancers .Despite aggressive treatment via radical surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy, the mortality rate remains >50% for diagnosed patients

Paclitaxel (Taxol) in relapsed and refractory ovarian

  1. The analysis showed that the five-year recurrence-free survival rate was also better in the two adjuvant-chemotherapy arms—76% for the chemotherapy arm versus 65% for women in the two observation arms. The combined analysis was planned early on, Dr. Guthrie noted. Each trial's original protocol was for 2,000 patients, to provide 90% power to.
  2. Findings In this randomized clinical trial of 120 vulnerable older patients with ovarian cancer, single-agent carboplatin was less feasible and active than a conventional every-3-weeks carboplatin-paclitaxel regimen (6 cycles completed in 48% vs 60% of patients, respectively), with significantly worse progression-free and overall survival.
  3. istration of paclitaxel and carboplatin for advanced ovarian cancer patients with poor performance status (PS). Methods FIGO stage III/IV ovarian cancer or fallopian tube cancer patients who underwent interval debulking surgery (IDS) followed by neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were.

In second-line or salvage chemotherapy, the response rate for recurrent or refractory clear cell carcinoma is extremely low.96 97 105-108 In a large-scale study of platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian carcinoma, including all histological types, the response rates of patients treated with paclitaxel plus platinum chemotherapy and those with. Most ovarian cancer patients are diagnosed at FIGO stage III or IV and present a 5-year relative survival rate of 30% . Primary debulking surgery (PDS) followed by intravenous administration of carboplatin at an area under the curve 5-6 (AUC) and paclitaxel 175 mg/m 2 over 3 h every 3 weeks for six cycles is the standard of care in advanced. intraperitoneal cisplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer n engl j med 354;1 www.nejm.org january 5, 2006 35 O varian cancer is the leading cause of death from a gynecologic cancer i Of 2228 patients who received Paclitaxel in 8 clinical studies evaluating its safety and effectiveness in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer, breast carcinoma, or NSCLC, and 1,570 patients who were randomized to receive Paclitaxel in the adjuvant breast cancer study, 649 patients (17%) were 65 years or older and 49 patients (1%) were 75. A total of 277 patients with advanced ovarian cancer were randomised to either 3 or 12 months follow-on treatment with paclitaxel (initially 175 mg m −2 every 28 days, subsequently reduced to.

No significant differences were observed in terms of progression-free survival (P=0.400), overall survival (P=0.502) and overall response rate (P=0.953) between patients treated with topotecan plus carboplatin and paclitaxel versus carboplatin and paclitaxel Patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who progress on paclitaxel following platinum-resistant disease are often treated with PLD, which has response rates below 20%. Gemcitabine and topotecan, 2 alternative treatments, have similarly low response rates, and there is limited data on the efficacy of additional treatments

The purpose of the study is to assess the role of palliative chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel in patients with persistent or recurrent advanced ovarian cancer. Twenty-eight patients with predominantly paclitaxel- and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer disease were treated with weekly paclitaxel at 80 mg/m2 for 6-8 weeks. In 25 patients (89.2%), this combination represented at least a third. Armstrong DK, Bundy B, Wenzel L, et al.: Intraperitoneal cisplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 354 (1): 34-43, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract] Markman M, Reichman B, Hakes T, et al.: Impact on survival of surgically defined favorable responses to salvage intraperitoneal chemotherapy in small-volume residual ovarian cancer Paclitaxel/Pazopanib for Platinum Resistant/Refractory Ovarian Cancer (TAPAZ) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government Notes: The Japanese Gynaecological Oncology Group (JGOG) randomised phase III trial (NOVEL) demonstrated that a three weekly carboplatin and weekly dose dense paclitaxel regimen (80 mg/m 2) may be more efficacious than the previous standard of care of three weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel.However, a high drop-out rate and highly selective patient population renders further trials to confirm.

The estimated 4-year survival rate was 77%. Only one of the 12 patients in Group A who underwent complete surgical staging and paclitaxel plus carboplatin adjuvant chemotherapy had a recurrence. The estimated 4-year survival rate was 100%, in contrast to 50% for those who did not undergo this regimen Since the mortality rates for patients with advanced ovarian carinoma are high, the most likely way to improve progression free and overall survival is with maximal upfront therapy (Morrow & Curtin, 1998). Currently, no triplet regimen has demonstrated compelling superiority Ovarian cancer patients with BRCA1 mutations, treated with at least 2 courses of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, have a higher 5-year survival rate compared with age- and treatment-matched patients. Objective To assess the anti-tumor activity and side effects of different dosages of paclitaxel (albumin binding type) (hereinafter referred to as nab-P) combined with Apatinib (hereinafter referred to as AP) in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell line and xenograft models. Methods SKOV-3/DDP cell line was selected as the research object in cytology experiment. Firstly, we divided it into. Approximately 75% of women with ovarian cancer are diagnosed at advanced stages (FIGO stage III/IV), with 15-23 months median global survival and 20% 5-year survival. Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumour development and proliferation. Increased angiogenesis is associated with worse clinical outcome in ovarian cancer. Here we review the play of bevacizumab in the treatment of ovarian.

Success Story: Taxol - National Cancer Institut

  1. The incidence of ovarian carcinoma increases with advancing age,peaking during the 7th decade of life and remaining elevated until age80 years. Despite the high prevalence of ovarian cancer in the elderly,the management of these patients is often less aggressive than that oftheir younger counterparts. As a result, many elderly cancer patientsreceive inadequate treatment
  2. The prospective, open-label study will randomize 540 patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer to receive either paclitaxel alone or paclitaxel in combination with TTFields tuned to 200 kHz on a weekly schedule until disease progression
  3. Paclitaxel is used to treat ovarian, breast and non-small cell lung cancer. It may some-times be used to treat other cancers, such as stomach cancer. Paclitaxel can be given on its own or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. It is best to read this information with our general information about chemotherapy and the type of cancer you have

Randomized Clinical Trial of Cisplatin/Paclitaxel Versus

Chemotherapy for Ovarian Cancer Intraperitoneal Chemotherap

The primary end point are progression free survival; the secondary end points include objective response rate, disease control rate, overall survival and safety. The subjects in this study: patients with newly diagnosed advanced (FIGO stage III-IV) ovarian cancer, including histologically or pathologically confirmed high-grade serous ovarian. Purpose Most patients with advanced ovarian cancer develop recurrent disease. For those patients who recur at least 6 months after initial therapy, paclitaxel platinum has shown a modest survival advantage over platinum without paclitaxel; however, many patients develop clinically relevant neurotoxicity, frequently resulting in treatment discontinuation. Thus, an alternative regimen without. Ovarian cancer survival, high recurrence rates, and toxicity of current treatment regimens have led researchers to strive for improvements in first-line treatment. This review brings you up-to-date Figure 1 Progression Free Survival Women with platinum resistant ovarian cancer experienced longer progression free survival with relacorilant plus nab-paclitaxel than with nab-paclitaxel. Women with platinum resistant ovarian cancer (n=60) who received 150 mg of relacorilant the day before, the day of and the day after their weekly nab-paclitaxel infusion exhibited a statistically significant improvement in progression free survival (hazard ratio 0.66, p-value 0.038) compared to women (n=60) who received nab-paclitaxel.

Women with platinum resistant ovarian cancer (n=60) who received 150 mg of relacorilant the day before, the day of and the day after their weekly nab-paclitaxel infusion exhibited a statistically. Median progression-free survival was 4.4 months with Cyramza/paclitaxel, compared to 2.9 months with paclitaxel alone. Median time to progression was 5.5 months and 3.0 months, respectively. The objective response rate with Cyramza/paclitaxel was 28 percent compared to 16 percent with paclitaxel alone and the disease control rate was 80 percent.

Ovarian Cancer Stages, Survival Rate and Prognosis OCR

N2 - Objective: To determine efficacy, toxicity, and survival in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) receiving combination of weekly paclitaxel and biweekly bevacizumab (PB). Methods: We reviewed chemotherapy logs identifying all patients receiving combination PB Despite an initial response rate of greater than 70% to platinum-based chemotherapy, most patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer eventually develop and succumb to recurrent disease. Ovarian cancer patients with platinum-resistant and -refractory disease have the lowest response rates to salvage chemotherapy. Various chemotherapeutic agents, such as paclitaxel, liposomal doxorubicin. Purpose: To analyze the effect of different doses of paclitaxel with fixed doses of carboplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Patients and Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IlB to IV, were eligible for this randomized, multicenter study

Approximately 16% of women with epithelial ovarian and fallopian tube cancer are diagnosed at this stage. If the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues or organs, the 5-year survival rate is 75%. If the cancer has spread to a distant part of the body, the 5-year survival rate is 30%. Approximately 58% of women are diagnosed at this stage Abraxane® (nab-paclitaxel) plus Gemzar® (gemcitabine) improved overall and progression-free survival in patients with previously untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer, according to the results of a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine.Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Each year, approximately 43,000 people are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in. Ovarian Cancer. Ovarian cancer is often fatal because it is usually advanced when diagnosed. Symptoms are usually absent in early stages and nonspecific in advanced stages. Evaluation usually includes ultrasonography, CT or MRI, and measurement of tumor markers (eg, cancer antigen 125). Diagnosis is by histologic analysis

Introduction. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common reproductive cancer. EOC is the ninth most prevalent cancer and the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death in women ().The average 5- and 10-year survival rates for women diagnosed with EOC are approximately 44% and 30%, respectively ().These poor outcomes are attributed to many factors including late-stage diagnosis. Introduction. Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and remains the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women (1, 2).The first-line treatment involves cytoreductive surgery followed by courses of i.v. combination taxane/platinum chemotherapy generally consisting of paclitaxel and carboplatin Weekly paclitaxel therapy prolonged survival among patients with early-stage breast cancer and those with metastatic breast cancer. 10,11 In a study involving patients with ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women, the eighth most common cause of cancer death around the world, and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecologic cancer [1, 2]. Most ovarian cancer patients are diagnosed at FIGO stage III or IV and present a 5-year relative survival rate of 30% [3] Platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer (PROC) remains difficult to treat and is associated with an overall survival of around 12 months at first platinum-resistant relapse or 6 months after fourth relapse following a platinum-based treatment . Weekly paclitaxel remains one of the cornerstones of therapy in this setting

Paclitaxel Reviews & Ratings - Drugs

A Four ovarian cancer cell lines, A2780, A2780/PTX, SKOV3 and SKOV3/PTX, were treated with various doses of paclitaxel, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined.B A. sent with advanced stage ovarian cancer and the overall survival (OS) rates are only 20 30% [Herzog, 2006]. The management of ovarian ity in terms of response and survival rates, but with a significantly improved toxicity profile. Paclitaxel, an active chemotherapeutic agent introduced in the 1990s, changed the standard.

During 2019, the American Cancer Society estimates that approximately 22,530 women will be diagnosed with ovarian carcinoma, and approximately 13,980 patients will die as a result of the disease. 1 The prevalence is approximately 10 times its incidence, with nearly 200,000 women in the United States living with the disease at any given time. A paucity of symptoms indicative of early disease. Platinum-based chemotherapy remains the cornerstone of treatment for ovarian carcinoma, and over the last 20 years surgical cytoreduction plus chemotherapy has improved the 5-year survival in the United States ( 1) .Furthermore, after publication of the results of a number of pivotal trials in the 1990s, chemotherapy with a platinum agent and a taxane (paclitaxel) is now considered the. However, ovarian cancer continues to be one of the leading causes of cancer deaths, as 5-year survival rate has only improved slightly from 57.2% to 62.8% during the last 20 years in South Korea [4, 5]

Overall treatment results remain unsatisfactory, since the median survival is still 2-3 years and the 5-year survival rate 30% for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. 8 Therefore, more effective systemic chemotherapy regimens or alternative treatment modalities are warranted. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with taxanes is such an alternative. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from a gynecologic cancer in the United States. 1 In most cases, the high death rate is due to tumor that has spread beyond the ovary at the time of. We read with interest the Article by Sandro Pignata and colleagues1 on the results of the MITO-7 trial, which compared the efficacy and safety of first-line carboplatin plus paclitaxel once a week versus every 3 weeks in European patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Median progression-free survival was 17·3 months (95% CI 15·2-20·2) with the standard 3-weekly regimen, which is.

Video: Changes in ovarian cancer survival during the 20 years

Patients with Stage III ovarian cancer undergoing optimal (R1 or R0) primary debulking. Experimental arm in GOG 172. Paclitaxel 135 mg/msq IV D1 over 24hr Cisplatin 100 mg/msq IP D2 Paclitaxel 60mg/msq IP D8. Control arm in GOG 172. Paclitaxel 135 mg/msq IV D1 Cisplatin 75 mg/msq IV D1. Progression free survival. ITT: median PFS: 14.7 vs 14. In 2018, the 5-year survival rate of patients with ovarian cancer was less than 50%, which is the highest mortality rate among all gynecological malignancies , . Paclitaxel (PTX) and carboplatin combination have been considered as the standard front-line chemotherapy of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer during the last decade [3] , [4] Ovarian Cancer Valerie Waddell, MD Assistant Professor, Clinical Ovarian cancer staging Incidence Survival Stage I Confined to the Ovary 20% 85% IA Growth limited to one ovary. IB Same as IA but involves both ovaries rates Stage I ~ 100% 20-25% Stage II ~100% 50% Optimal stage II

Adding atezolizumab to bevacizumab plus chemotherapy did not improve progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with newly diagnosed, stage III/IV ovarian cancer, regardless of PD-L1 status. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents the sixth most common cancer worldwide and it is characterized by a poor prognosis [].Intravenous 3-weekly schedule of carboplatin and paclitaxel was historically considered the standard of care in the first-line setting; a recent meta-analysis confirmed that weekly or semi-weekly regimens do not add significant benefit over the standard one []

Comparison of first-line chemotherapy regimens for ovarian

Alternately, paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 IV over 1 hour weekly for an initial 12 weeks, followed by 4-week courses of 3 weekly doses with 1 week off, has been given until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity†. In 48 patients with platinum and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer, the objective response rate was 20.9% To determine how the lncRNA FER1L4 in ovarian cancer cells influences paclitaxel (PTX) resistance, we examined the expression level of FER1L4 in human ovarian epithelial cell lines IOSE80 and HOSEpiC and human ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR-3, Caov-3, and SKOV3 through RNA isolation and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) Although standard surgical debulking and chemotherapy regimens have been developed for several decades, the overall five-year survival rates of ovarian cancer patients have not significantly improved [2-4]. Currently, the microtubule stabilizing agent paclitaxel is widely used in the clinical management of ovarian cancer . However, most.

Of 2228 patients who received paclitaxel in 8 clinical studies evaluating its safety and effectiveness in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer, breast carcinoma, or NSCLC, and 1570 patients who were randomized to receive paclitaxel in the adjuvant breast cancer study, 649 patients (17%) were 65 years or older and 49 patients (1%) were 75. Women with stage 3 epithelial ovarian cancer could benefit from the addition of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), also known as a hot chemotherapy bath. Study results published in the New England Journal of Medicine showed that HIPEC improved survival rates by 10%

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common cancers of, and the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers [].This cancer is often undiagnosed until its progression to stage III/IV, at which point the 5-year survival rate is less than 50% [].Most patients with advanced ovarian cancer develop recurrent disease which is usually resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents [] The GAS6/AXL inhibitor AVB-500, when combined with paclitaxel, elicited clinical benefit with favorable tolerability in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, according to data from a. Currently, paclitaxel and carboplatin are administered every 3 weeks as the standard agents for the first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. The concept of dose-dense therapy is based on the Norton-Simon hypothesis that a shorter interval between the doses of cytotoxic agents is more effective in reducing tumor burden than dose escalation. The results of phase III clinical trials.